Monday, December 10, 2012



 Before studying this problem, we should review the political situation of Vietnam and the world in XXth century.

1. PHAN BỘI CHÂU ( 1867 - 1940)
 Phan Bội Châu was a prominent revolutionist of Vietnam at the beginning of 20th century. He was born as Phan Văn San in the village of Dan Nhiem, Nam Hoa commune, Nam Đàn district. Nghệ An province. Phan Bội Châu passed the regional examinations in 1900, but he decided to travel abroad to pursue his revolutionary activities. Like a lot of his contemporary intellectuals at that time, he became familiar with the works of famed European thinkers, such as Voltaire, Rousseau and Darwin. Phan Bội Châu was also influenced by the writings of such Chinese Confucianists as Liang Qichao and Kang Youwei. He believed that renovation were very necessary for Vietnam. As a result, he created the Việt Nam Duy Tân Hội (Vietnam Modernization Association) in 1904; Cường Để led the association as its president, while Phan Bội Châu served as general secretary. Phan Bội Châu and Cường Để decided to seek aid from Japan. He was selected to visit Japan to secure the funds needed to sustain Duy Tân Hội. However, Phan Bội Châu was unsuccessful in procuring aid from the Japanese. The Japanese government did not want to damage its own relationship with France.
In 1905, the Vietnam Modernization Association agreed to send him to Japan to get Japanese military assistance or weapons. Phan Bội Châu soon realized that Japanese military aid would not be possible, and turned his attention to using Japan as a base to train and educate young Vietnamese students, by starting the Dong Du (Visit the East Society). The number of Vietnamese students sent to Japan for training peaked at 200 in 1908. However, due to pressure from the French government, Japan declared Phan Bội Chau to be persona non grata and expelled him in 1909.

In 1909, after being deported from Japan, Phan Bội Châu went to Hong Kong with Cường Để. There, he made plans to raise money and bring to Thailand the Vietnamese students who had studied in Japan, but had now been dispersed. He had previously had the foresight to establish a base in Thailand.

The Wuhang Uprising occurred in China on 10 October 1911. It quickly spread and declared itself the Republic of China. Sun Yat-sen ( 1866–1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and first president and founding father of the Republic of China ("Nationalist China"). Sun played an instrumental role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution. Sun was the first provisional president when the Republic of China was founded in 1912 and later co-founded the Kuomintang (KMT), serving as its first leader. 

The success of the Wuhang Uprising greatly inspired Phan Bội Châu, since he had many friends among the Chinese revolutionaries. The old Vietnam Modernization Association had become worthless, with its members scattered. A new organization needed to be formed, with a new agenda inspired by the Chinese revolution. A large meeting was held in late March 1912. They agreed to form a new group, the Vietnam Restoration League. Cường Để was made president and chairman; Chau was vice-president.

By 1914, Phan Bội Châu was arrested by the Chinese authorities and thrown in jail on suspicion of helping rival Chinese authorities. Fortunately the intervention of the Chinese minister for the army, stopped them from killing him or handing him over to the French. But he was kept in prison for almost four years until 1917. In prison he wrote many biographies, including his own, and other books. 

The revolution was led by the Bolsheviks who began the takeover of government buildings on 24 October 1917. Lenin (1870-1924) was Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Soviet Union (Premier of the Soviet Union).

By this time, Sun began a policy of active cooperation with the Communist Party of China (CPC). Sun and the Soviet Union's Adolph Joffe signed the Sun-Joffe Manifesto in January 1923. Sun received help from the Comintern for his acceptance of communist members into his KMT. Revolutionary and socialist leader Vladimir Lenin praised Sun and the KMT for their ideology and principles. Lenin praised Sun and his attempts at social reformation, and also congratulated him for fighting foreign Imperialism. Sun also returned the praise, calling him a "great man", and sent his congratulations on the revolution in Russia.
With the Soviet's help, Sun was able to develop the military power needed for the Northern Expedition against the military at the north. He established the Whampoa Military Academy near Guangzhou with Chiang Kai-shek as the commandant of the National Revolutionary Army (NRA). Other Whampoa leaders include Wang Jingwei and Hu Hanmin as political instructors. This full collaboration was called the First United Front. 
After Sun Yat-sen died, Chiang Kai-shek took power. Chiang Kai-shek (1887 – 1975) was a political and military leader of 20th-century China. Chiang was an influential member of the Nationalist Party, the Kuomintang (KMT), and was a close ally of Sun Yat-sen. He took Sun's place as leader of the KMT when Sun died in 1925. In 1927,  the Communists and the Kuomintang split, marking the start of the Chinese Civil War, each group claimed to be his true heirs, a conflict that continued through World War II.
By Sun Yat-sen 's policy of active cooperation with the Communist Party of China , and the Communist Party of USSR, Vietnamese Nationalists also opened arms to  every revolutionists despite the Communists. During the Second World War (1939–45) Stalin had urged Mao into a joint anti-Japanese coalition with Chiang Kai-shek. As a result, Lý Thụy and his men  infiltrated easily  into the Vietnamese Nationalist organizations 


After  1922, Nguyễn Tất Thành went to Moscow and became an agent of Comintern. In 1923, he came to China. He took many masks such as   Công Nhân,  Vícto,   V,  K, Đông Dương, Quac.E. Wen,  K.V,  Tống Văn Sơ, New Man, Li Nốp,  Teng Man Huon, Hồ Quang, D.C. Lin, Lâm Tam Xuyên, Ông Trần,  Bình Sơn, Đi Đông;  Sáu Sán, Già Thu... About 1932-1942, he disappeared, but about  1942 , he reappeared under the alias Ho Chi Minh. 
 According Ho Chi Minh Archive, When Japan occupied Vietnam in 1941, he resumed contact with ICP leaders and helped to found a new Communist-dominated independence movement, popularly known as the Vietminh, that fought the Japanese. In August 1945, when Japan surrendered, the Vietminh seized power and proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) in Hanoi. Ho Chi Minh, now known by his final and best-known pseudonym (which means the “Enlightener”), became president.(HCM,VII)
According to Trần Dân Tiên,  he formed  Việt Minh  , short  for Viêt Nam Độc Lập Đồng Minh Hội (League for Independence of Viet Nam) in May 1941 (1) and Tất Thành used alias Hô Chí Minh  before he went to Chongqing and was arrested in Liǔzhōu shì  (1942)
 There are many ideas about the alias Hồ Chí Minh.

1. TRẦN QUỐC VƯỢNG  ( 1934-2005  )
Trần Quốc Vượng in "Trong Cõi", said Nguyễn Tất Thành used the alias "Hồ Chí Minh" since Hồ was his real family name, he was the descendent of Hồ Sĩ Tạo. Someone said his name "Minh" due to his wife's name "Minh Khai".  (2)


 Hồ Học Lãm ( 1883?-1942) 's pen name was Hinh Sơn, a native of Quỳnh Đôi village, Quỳnh Lưu district, Nghệ An province. His grand father was Hồ Bá Ôn, quan Án Sát, (The Chief of Province and the Chief of the provincial court), was killed in a  fighting  French invaders in 1883 when he protected  the  stronghold of Nam Định. Hồ Bá Ôn s' eldest son was Hồ Bá Kiên involved in Phong Trào Cần Vương ( the  Aid the King movement), and was killed by French in Lao Bảo, his second son was Hồ Thúc Linh, who had passed the regional examination, was arrested and tortued by French occupers. His another son was Hồ Bá Trị also involved in the Aid King movement and  wounded to death in a battle against French colonialists in 1885 when his son  Hồ Học Lãm just  was two year old. Hồ Học Lãm and Hồ Tùng Mậu were the cousins. Hồ Bá Ôn and Hồ Sĩ Tạo were the natives of Quỳnh Đôi village ,Quỳnh Lưu district, Nghệ An province.
In 1908, in response to Renovation movement and Travel East, he traveled to Japan for study. When the Vietnamese students in Japan were deported, he went to China, and followed his study  at the Beijing Military School.
After graduation,
he became a senior officer in the army of China Kuomintang working at the Operations Bureau of the General Staff, but he still remained his patriotism for Vietnam. 

In 1936, he joined Việt Nam Độc Lập Đồng Minh Hội (League for Independence of Vietnam) of Prince Cường Để ). In 1937. he used alias "Hồ Chí Minh" and his own money to edite a small magazine in Chinese named Viet Thanh (Voice of Vietnam). At that time, Hoàng Văn Hoan, a native of Quynh Đôi vilage, Quỳnh Lưu district went to China, and came to Hồ Học Lãm's house to visit him. Because of  country love, Hồ Học Lãm let him stay in. As a result, a group of communists were secretly formed here. In 1938, Nguyễn Tất Thành under the mask "Hồ Quang" ordored  Lâm Bá Kiệt (Phạm Văn Đồng), Dương Hoài Nam (Võ Nguyên Giáp), Lý Quang Hoa (Hoàng Văn Hoan) infiltrated to destroy this association. In 1940, Học Học Lãm was seriously ill and  hospitalized in Guilin. Nguyễn Tất Thành seized alias Hồ Chí Minh for him . He also seized League for the Independence of Vietnam, the party name of Hồ Học Lãm. (Wikipedia)


Phương Lan was the first  woman, and the first writer who unmasked Nguyễn Tất Thành. In her book entitled " The Vietnamese Female Heroes From the Beginning to the Present Days",published in Saigon, in 1969, she recited Mrs Ngô Thị Khôn Nghi 's story in order to declare that Hồ Chí Minh, president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam was an unreal Hồ Chí Minh.  Real Hồ Chí Minh was another man. He was the husband of Ngô Thị Khôn Nghi.
  Ngô Thị Khôn Nghi was a daughter of Ngô Quang, a revolutionsist, a general of the Army of the Aid King Movement. a native of Tam Đa village, Nghi Lộc district, Nghệ An province. He experienced many failures so at last he escaped to Thailand and died there. He had two children,  Ngô Thị Khôn Nghi , and  Ngô Chính Trực. Later, Khôn Nghi and Chính Trực followed the revolutionists and went to China. In China, she married Hồ Học Lãm. Phương Lan also highlighted " Ngô Thị Khôn Nghi Vợ Cụ Hồ Chí Minh Thật" (Ngô Thị Khôn Nghi,  wife of real Hồ Chí Minh).

She and her husband engaged in the revolutionary activities in China. Real Hồ Chí Minh was Hồ Học Lãm who was the son of  Hồ Bá Ôn, the Chief of Province and the Chief of the provincial court of Nam Định province. Hồ Học Lãm participated in the Renovation Movement and Travel East Movement of Phan Bội Châu. He went to Japan then came to China, joined the Chinese Army, and became a lieutenant colonel. He was also a founding member of the Vietnam Independence Movement Allied Society in 1938.When Hồ Học Lãm died, Nguyễn Tất Thành stole three identity cards of Ho Hoc Lãm, and used Hồ Học Lãm's alias Hồ Chí Minh to cover the real face of a communist, especially in 1927, Chiang Kai-shek abandonned Sun Yat-sen 's policy of cooperation with the Communist Party of China (CPC).  (3)


Lawyer Nguyễn Văn Chức wrote:" In China about 1940, there were some revolutionary associations of exiled Vietnamese people, such as:

 -Việt Nam Độc Lập Đồng Minh Hội (League for the Independence of Vietnam) of Hồ Học Lãm.

-Việt Nam Giải Phóng Đồng Minh Hội (League for the Liberation of Vietnam) of Trương Bội Công.  

-Việt Nam Cách Mạng Đồng Minh Hội (League for Revolution of Vietnam) of Nguyễn Hải Thần.

Lý Thụy let his men infiltrated these associations, and  he seized the name of League for the Liberation of Vietnam of Trương Bội Công for his Vietnamese Communist Party.(4)

  5. 6.      Trần Gia Phụng (ViệtNam Niên Biểu Nhân Vật Chí , p.168), and Chính Đạo (Hồ Chí Minh, Vo.2, Văn Hóa , Houston, 1993,p.281)   also recited this event, and accused Nguyễn Tất Thành of seizing Hồ Chí Minh's name and his party (5).

Nguyễn Tường Bách was one of the first doctor of
the University of  Medicine of Hà nội. He was Nguyễn Tường Tam's youngest  brother. He joined
 the Great Viet party, after 1945, he escaped Vietnam and lived in China. Now he lived in the USA. His memoir  " VIỆT NAM MỘT THẾ KỶ QUA" (Vietnam in the Last Century) was the picture of Vietnam war.
In 1940, the Vietnamese patriots in China such as Nguyễn Hải Thần, Hồ Học Lãm, Vũ Hồng Khanh, Nghiêm Kế Tổ.. . founded  the Việt Nam Độc Lập Đồng Minh Hội (League for the Independence of Vietnam) but later, Vietnamese communists penetrated, consequently, Vũ Hồng Khanh, Nghiêm Kế Tổ, Chu Bá Phượng, Lê Khang had to disperse this organization and created the Viet Nam Quốc Dân Đảng (Vietnamese Nationalist Party)  ( ch.11).
In October 1942, a new organization named the Việt Nam Cách Mệnh Đồng Minh Hội (League for Revolution of Vietnam) was built in order to unify the Vietnamese revolutionary forces as the Viet Nam Quốc Dân Đảng (Vietnamese Nationalist Party), the Phục Quốc (Restoration Party) and Việt Nam Độc Lập Đồng Minh Hội (Leage for Independence of Vietnam). At first, its leader was Trương Bội Công, later Nguyễn Hải Thần . At that time, Nguyễn Tường Tam and a Vietnamese were arrested by Chinese general Trương Phát Khuê. (ch.17). The League for Revolution of Vietnam sent Vũ Hồng Khanh and Nguyễn Hải Thần visiting Nguyễn Tường Tam. After this visiting, the League for Revolution of Vietnam called Trưong Phát Khuê for releasing Nguyễn Tường Tam and that Vietnamese. That Vietnamese was Nguyễn Tất Thành, who used alias Hồ Chí Minh, but nobody knew him. The League for Revolution of Vietnam believed in him and handed over money and mission  to him. He came back to Cao Bằng and organized his force of resistance.  (6)
The League for Revolution of Vietnam consisted of the truthful patriots but naive when the communists were dishonest and brutal.

This document said Việt Nam Cách MạngĐồng Minh hội (League for Revolution of Vietnam) was an organization of the Vietnamese lackeys of Chiang Kai-shek, who forced Lý Thụy (Nguyễn Tất Thành) working for them as a Vice President of this Organiszation when Lý Thụy was arrested by Trương Phát Khuê. As a result, he accepted this demand (7) 

In his memoir entittled " Giọt Nước Trong Biển Cả"( A Drop of Water in the Oean), HOÀNG VĂN HOAN   recalled the days he came to China:" Hồ Học Lãm  and I had lived in the  same village. He was also the uncle of my comrade Hồ Tùng Mậu. Hồ Học Lãm 's mother was Mrs. Lụa, who engaged in the Aid King Movement. When I was 16 years old, I always came to her house to visit her and she sometimes told her  achievements in the Aid King Movement. When I met Hồ Ngọc Lãm, I told him about the relationship of two families, the situation of our village and our country. After the conversation, he asked me to stay in his home. He was not a communist, KMT kew him. He founded the League for  Independence of Vietnam, and it was very useful for us. In 1940, when I was in Guilin, Lý Thụy was there too. When Hồ Học Lãm was hospitalized in Guilin, I secretly met Lý Thụy, and I asked him how to develop our activities. Lý Thụy said we could do our communist activities  under the name of the League for  Independence of Vietnam ".(8)


In his memoir entitled "Một Cơn Gió Bụi" (A Dusty Wind", Trần Trọng Kim had the same idea with Nguyễn Tường Bách. According to Trần, in 1940, when the Japanese Army attacked French forces in Lang Sơn province,  Trần Trung Lập a Vietnamese general of the “ League for  Restoration of Vietnam” (Việt Nam Quang Phục Hội), cooperated with Japanese forces fighting French for the independence of Vietnam, but afterward,  Japanese  compromised with French,  as a result, general Trần Trung Lập was executed by French authorities, and 700 Vietnamese revolutionists escaped Lang Son  to China with leader Hoàng Lương. According to Trần, in China at that time, there were some Vietnamese nationalist parties as   Việt Nam Phục Quốc Đồng Minh hội (Legue for Restoration of Vietnam),  Việt Nam Quốc Dân đảng (Vietnamese Nationalist Party) and a lot of nonpartisan revolutionists. The Chinese government found out that there were many communists hidden in the League for Independence  of Vietnam, consequently, the Chinese authorities dissolved this party, and imprisoned Lý Thụy in  Liǔzhōu shì 's cave. The Chinese also demanded general Trương Phát Khuê to unify Vietnamese nationalist parties. General Trương entrusted this mission to Hoang Lương. On the first October,1942, a congress was hold in Liǔzhōu shì, consisted of the representatives of the nationalist parties:

1).  League for Restoration of Việt Nam (Việt Nam Phục Quốc Ðồng Minh Hội), whose representatives were Hoàng Lương and Hồ Học Lãm.
2). Vietnamese Nationalist Party (Việt Nam Quốc Dân Ðảng), whose representatives were Vũ Hồng Khanh and Nghiêm Kế Tổ.
3) Nonpartisan Nationalists whose representatives were Trương Bội Công, Nguyễn Hải Thần, Trần Báo, and Trương Trung Phụng.
The congress decided to form a Preparatory Committee, and its leader was Nguyễn Hải Thần. The Preparatory Commitee required the Chinese government releasing Lý Thụy, and  Nguyễn Hải Thần let Lý Thụy working with him. The Preparatory committee decided to found a new organization, named Việt Nam Cách Mạng Đồng Minh Hội (Leage for Revolution of Vietnam ), its Chairman was Trương Bội Công, Trần Đình Xuyên, Nguyễn Hải Thần, and Vũ Hồng Khanh commisionners (9)
11.TƯỞNG VĨNH KÍNH ( Jiang Yongjing) studed  Hoàng Văn Hoan's Memoir, and the documents of KMT, consequently, he  confirmed that Việt Minh was abbreviated from Việt Nam Ðộc Lập Ðồng Minh Hội ( League for Independence  of Vietnam) that was found before May of 1941 by H Học Lãm.  Later, this organization combined with a number of other organizations into League for Revolution of Vietnam. This new organization consisted of many famous characters such as Nguyn Hai Thn, Trương Bi Công. Nguyễn Ái Quốc also joined this league because  at that time, the Vietnamese revolutionists followed nationalism, and did not understand the sinister tactics of the communists. Moreover, by flattery and deception, Nguyễn Ái Quốc and his band gained the confidence of Trương Phát Khuê and Hồ Học Lãm. By the spirit of nationalism, the league for Revolution of Vietnam had to face more danger.(10)


 In " Hô chí Minh, The Missing Years", Sophie Quinn Jugde also said that Hồ Chí Minh used name of Hồ Học Lãm and his " Leage for Independance of Vietnam. (11)

III. THỤY (HỒ CHÍ MINH) AND VIỆT NAM ĐỘC LẬP ĐỒNG MINH HỘI (League for Independence of Vietnam)

The Preparatory Commitee required the Chinese government releasing Lý Thụy, whom Nguyễn Hải Thần  believed that he was a revolutionist but did not know he was Nguyễn Ái Quốc, a communist, and   the Chinese government agreed with them,  then Nguyễn Hải Thần let Lý Thụy working with him. The Preparatory committee decided to found a new organization, named Việt Nam Cách Mạng Đồng Minh Hội (Leage for Revolution of Vietnam ), its Chairman was Trương Bội Công.
Trần Đình Xuyên, Nguyễn Hải Thần, and Vũ Hồng Khanh commisionners;Bồ Xuân Luật, Trương Trung Phụng, Nông Kính Du were the important persons of the league, while H Chí Minh an alternate member. Later, due to a  dissonance between them, Trương Bội Công  resigned and came to Yunnan and died there.

According to Trần Trọng Kim's friend,Nguyễn Tất Thành made  the accquaintance of a Chinese general named Hầu Chí Minh, therefore he changed his name into Hồ Chí Minh. Following the Vietnamese tradition, we had to respect our ancestors and the important persons in the society, as a result we were forbidden to call their name. That was contrary to the European culture where we could  get the names of our benefactors for our children.

Thus we can conclude that Nguyễn Tất Thành always played the same trick. He seized the name of  a famous revolutionist or group of revolutionists for him and for his party.
In France. he seized alias Nguyễn Ái Quốc because this group consisted of the famous  and smart intellectuals. He needed their fame because he was an illiterate guy. With the mask Nguyễn Ái Quốc, he could make people to believe that he was a scholar  as well a  patriot.

In China, he also played this game. He used alias of Hồ Học Lãm and his organization' name because he wanted to use name of a nationalist patriot and a nationalist party to cover his communist face. Nguyễn Tất Thành was an untruthful and cruel man.

It was the trick of the communists. When they were weak, they always lived on  the rich and famous people, then they betrayed and killed them. Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Văn Trường,  Hồ Học Lãm, Phan Bội Châu, Nguyễn Thị Năm  were their victims.


According to Trần Dân Tiên, about 1925-1927, H Chí Minh was chased by the French secret agents but he was safe due to the protection of the Chinese government, but the French had already sentenced him to death in absentia in 1930. In 1930 he was again in China and established in Hong Kong the Communist Party of Vietnam. He was arrested in 1931 by the British police, and after he was released in 1933, he escaped back to the Soviet Union in the disguise of a Chinese merchant.
In 1931, under the assumed name is Tong Van (Sung Man Ch 'o), Nguyen Ai Quoc was detained by the government of Hong Kong with the intention of giving the French in Indochina. Journal L ' 'Humanite August 9, 1932 reported that Nguyen Ai Quoc had died of tuberculosis in prison clinics in Hong Kong at the same time it denounced this conspiracy of French collusion with the British to assassinate the leader of the Communist Party of Indochina.
Due to this event, the researchers came to two contrary conclusions: 
-Nguyễn Sinh Cung (Hồ Chí Minh still survived).
-Nguyễn Sinh Cung -Hồ Chí Minh died.

All communist documents said that Hồ Chí Minh still alive after 1931.The most important document was the book of Trần Dân Tiên.
Trần Dân Tiên reported  the days Nguyen was imprisoned in Hong kong, but he did not mention about his tuberculosis, and this report was completely wrong, it seems that Trần Dân Tiên was another man, not  Hồ Chí Minh, and Hồ Chí Minh was not Nguyễn Tất Thành.
-Trần Dân Tiên did not say when he was arrested by the English secret agents, but many documents told that he was imprisoned in 1931. 
-Hồ Chí Minh was a communist, an emloyee of the Third International, but Trần Dân Tiên said that the French colonialists and English imperialists slandered him, and he mocked at them(48) . That was a lie and a concealment.
-Wikipedia said that in June 1931, Nguyễn was arrested in Hong Kong. To reduce French pressure for extradition, it was (falsely) announced in 1932 that Nguyễn Ái Quốc had died", but Trần Dân Tiên criticized L 'Humanité of the  fabrication of that  wrong news. That news was  announced by British, not   L'Humanité . - The Hồ Chí Minh Archive said that  In June 1931 Ho was arrested there by British police and remained in prison until his release in 1933. He then made his way back to the Soviet Union, where he reportedly spent several years recovering from tuberculosis. In 1938 he returned to China and served as an adviser with Chinese Communist armed forces (Ho Chi Minh Archive)

 In his book entitled " Từ Thực Dân Đến Cộng Sản" (From the Colonialism to the Communism), Hoàng Văn Chí focussed on Hồ Chí Minh life and his activities.
Firstly, he wrote on the arrestation of Nguyễn Tất Thành ( Nguyễn Ái Quốc) in Hongkong. According to Hoàng, Nguyễn was arrested in the end of the year 1931 and released about 1932. He went to Singapore but was arrested again and conducted to Hongkong. Due to his  tuberculosis, he was sent to a hospital where he  disappeared. The British government in Hongkong said nothing about his disappearance but the  public opinion stated that Nguyễn now became an employee of the English police.Last time, Nguyễn also did the same thing with the French police. The Daily Worker, an English Communist Journal said that Nguyễn already died in Hongkong prison  because of his tuberculosis. The French secret agents and Vietnamese Communists also believed that news, In 1933, the French secret agents concluded in their documents that Nguyễn  had died in Hongkong.  Nobody knew where he went until 1941 when Nguyễn suddenly came to Nguyễn Khánh Toàn's house,  and a hypothesis was made that Nguyễn  was  imprisoned from 1933 to 1941 in a place in USSR (Part 2, ch.3).
Secondly, Hoàng Văn Chí stated the individual configuration  of Nguyễn Tất Thành. In 1945, the appearance of Hồ Chí Minh  in Hanoi surprised the French authorities, but later they recognized that H was Nguyễn Ái Quốc, a Vietnamese communist due to his special ears. In 1946, general Salan asked Hồ, but he did not say the truth. In 1958, in a visit of the diplomatic delegation of the communist countries in Nghệ An, Vietnamese journal confessed that Hồ Chí Minh was Nguyễn Ái Quốc(12

In his memoir entitled "Bên Giòng Lịch Sử 1945-1965 " ( On the Side of History), father Cao Văn Luận said that Mr. Arnoux, who served as chief of the police in Indochina under the governor general Decoux, recognized Hồ was Nguyễn Ái Quốc due to his ears.(13)


(1). Jiang Yongjing
In the book entitled " Hồ Chí Minh and China",   Jiang Yongjing  told that in 1932, Nguyễn Ái Quốc came to Singapore  and was arrested by the British authorities and conducted to Hongkong, afterward, Hồ disappeared but the British authorities kept silent when the journals included the communist journals announced that Hdied of tuberculosis (14).
(2). William Duiker
In his book entitled Ho Chi Minh-A Life, Prof. Duiker wrote:"On August 11, 1932, The Worker , a Communist  newspaper issued in London informed that Nguyễn Ái Quốc died in prison.(15)

(3). Sophie Quinn Judge in her work entitled "Ho Chi Minh:The Missing Years, 1919-1941", especially in chapter 6 " Death in Hong Kong, Burial in Moscow? (1931-8)" discovered the mysterious story of Ho Chí Minh in 1931-1938.

"Ho Chi Minh:The Missing Years, 1919-1941"by Sophie Quinn Judge is the most important bibliography of Hồ Chí Minh.  When comparing Sophie  Quinn Judge and Brocheux, Jonathan Mirsky wrote:
 Mr. Brocheux originally published his biography in French, in 2003. That was also the year that Sophie Quinn-Judge published her comprehensive and meticulous Ho Chi Minh: The Missing Years. That biography, cited in Mr. Brocheux’s book but not otherwise referred to, makes much use of the open Comintern archives in Moscow as well as the files of the Surete, the French secret service that kept Ho in view for decades. The use of these sources, among others, permits Ms. Quinn-Judge to write extensively of events in Ho’s early career in Vietnam, Moscow and China, while Mr. Brocheux contents himself with much briefer treatments." (16)
Indeed,"Ho Chi Minh:The Missing Years 1919-1941 gives us many details of Hồ Chí Minh 's life from 1919 to 1941. Sophie Quinn Judge studied  carrefully Hồ Chí Minh's emprisonment in China, and his  tuberculosis. She denied  Dennis Duncanson 's idea when he said that Hồ did not get tuberculosis. She emphasized on the news of Hồ 's tuberculosis and his death in the journals, especially the communist newspapers in 1932. She also mentioned of a Memorial Celebation for Hồ was help by a group of Vietnamese students of the Communist University of the Toilers of the East in Moscow, and  the representatives of the international communist parties also attended this ceremony and offered their condolences. Howerver, the French authorities did not believe that news. It seems that Sophie Quinn Judge came to a conclusion:" Hồ was dead in Hong Kong, and buried in Moscow". And it seems that she came to an affirmation that Hồ was killed by Stalin in a great purge at that time. On the contrary, these were only her suppositions and she had a hesitation in her work.  She said Hồ died in Hongkong but she also said that Hcame to Moscow. She said Hồ was killed by Stalin but she also said that Hreturned China in 1941. (17)

In 2008, in a book entitled "胡志明生平考 Hú zhì míng sheng píng kăo (Hồ Chí Minh' Life) 胡俊熊 Hú jùn xióng  affirmed that Nguyễn Ái Quốc had  died, and Hồ Chí Minh was a Chinese named Hồ Tập Chương 胡集璋 Hújízhang. He belonged to  the 客家 kè jia ( Hakka) race, a minoriry in Miêu Lật 苗栗 miáo lì,Đồng La 銅鑼 tóngluó in Taiwan, and he was the same family with Hú jùn xióng . (18)
Hú jùn xióng was not the only person who revealed the mystery of Hồ Chí Minh's life. According to Chân Mây and BT NQBảo ,  Prof. A Quý on his web site (www.sctlog.sctnet. showed a lot of the famous kè jia as  Hong Xiuquan 洪秀全 ,   Sun Yat-sen 孫逸仙, Dèng Xiǎopíng 鄧小平, Lǐ Dēnghuī李登輝 Lǐ Guāngyào 李光耀; and 胡集璋 Hú jí zhang (Hồ Chí Minh ) (19)
Hú jùn xióng's book contents 6 chapters:
Chapter I: The Changement:Nguyễn Ái Quốc died then survied.
Chapter II. Ruse of the communists

Chapter III. Hồ Chí Minh in China (1938-1945)
Chapter IV. Hồ Chí Minh's loves
Chapter V. Hồ Chí Minh's Prison Diary and his will.
Chapter VI. Conclusion.

(1).The Sources of Information
 Writing "Hồ Chí Minh's Life", Hú jùn xióng had

two sources of information. Firstly, it was information of his relatives  and his  compatriots in Taiwan. In 1945- 1960, they were told that Hồ Chí Minh was a Chinese belonged to the race kè jia in Guangdong or Taiwan.(20)
Secondly, basing  on the information in the newspapers in 1932 announcing the death of Nguyễn Ái Quốc in Hongkong prison, Hú jùn xióng came to a conclusion that Nguyễn Ái Quốc died in 1932, and  Hồ Chí Minh was not Nguyễn Ái Quốc but Hồ Tập Chương (胡集璋 Hú jí zhang), a Chinese belonged to the race Hakka, a minority in Taiwan.
(2).Hú jùn xióng 's  results of of research

a. Hồ Chí Minh died of tuberculosis.
-News on the journals in 1932, the Memorial for Hồ' was help in Moscow by Vietnamese students, and the condolence of the communist parties might be the truth of Hồ's death. But  nobody could see his grave, and find any documents about  his burrial , so  one  might think that the international communist destroyed  documents when  they created a fake Nguyn Ái Quc.
 -Hú jùn xióng studed some Hồ Chí Minh 's letters related to his tuberculosis, as the letter to Lý Đc Phương, a Vietnamese communist. In  his memoir,
 Lý Đức Phương wrote:" From 1925 to 1927, in Guangzhou, Nguyễn Ái Quốc worked so hard during 900 days and nights. He was not healthy, he coughed up blood. 
From July to September 1930, Nguyễn Ái Quốc sent 7 letters to the Far Eastern Department to tell them about his tuberculosis: he coughed up blood, and he was very tired. At the end of November 1931, he wrote to Lâm Đức Thụ, his comrad: "I am very weak, I always coughed up blood, I would be dead in the prison".
In 1932, Long Paul, an  emplyee of English Intelligence Agency while taking an seaplane to help Nguyễn Ái Quốc escape from HongKong, narrated that  Nguyễn Ái Quốc was very weak, he did not stop cough, it seemed that he had no strength to speak."
 In this condition of health, how could he undergo a long travel  from China to USSR ? His death in Moscow might be  a truth. 

b. Hú jí zhang and Nguyễn Ái Quốc
 Hú jí zhang was born in 1901, when Nguyễn Ái Quốc  1890.  Hú jí zhang's father was Hồ Dần Lượng (Hú yín liàng) was a teacher in Taiwan.  Hú jí zhang saw his young brother  Hồ Tập Dưỡng (Hú yang ) the last time in1939. Afterward, he disappeared. Hú jí zhang and Nguyễn Ái Quốc were involved in the preparatory work of the establishment of the Vietnamese Communist Party. When Nguyễn Ái Quốc died, Hú jízhang replaced Nguyn Ái Quốc by the decision of  the  International Communist  Party. Hú jí zhang had aliases PC Lin and Hồ Quang, he followed his education 5 years in USSR, Nguyễn Ái Quốc also had the aliases PC Lin and Hồ Quang.(21)
 c The pictures of Hồ Chí Minh and Nguyễn Ái Quốc.


Hú jùn xióng presented many pictures of Nguyễn Ái Quốc and Hồ Chí Minh taken before  and after 1933, and he determinated that they were to dfferent persons. He also  rejected the ideas of Mr. Arnoux, who had served as chief of the police in Indochina under the governor general Decoux, certified that Hồ was Nguyễn Ái Quốc due to his left ears . According to Hú jùn xióng nobody could recognize an Asian  with his  picture taken 10 years ago. And according to Hú jùn xióng, the ears of Nguyễn Ái Quốc were dìferent from Hồ Chí Minh's ears.
d. Chinese language ability
When Nguyễn Ái Quốc left Vietnam in 1911, he did not finish his elementary education. Although he was born in a Confucius family, he was not good at Chinese because his father had to travel from district to district to make a living by teaching Chinese in the  rich families and he did not have time to teach his children. During that time, growing up in a poor family, Nguyễn Ái Quốc had to work hard for his living, and he did not go to school. Moreover, at the beginning of XX century, the Chinese Education in Vietnam was abolished by the French authorities and was replaced  by Quốc Ngữ. Hồ's father also did not want his children follow the Chinese Education. Before 1933, Nguyn Ái Quốc did not have any article or work in Chinese. According to many documents, about 1927, Nguyễn Ái Quốc was not good at Chinese.According to Hú jùn xióng, Nguyễn Ái Quốc's level of Chinese was the level of an elementary education. William J. Duiker wrote that in Spring of 1927, Nguyễn Ái Quốc stayed in Guangzhou  and married a Chinese woman in order to learn  Chinese (22). In his book entitled"Zhou Enlai and Modern China", Han Suyin wrote: In Autunm of 1925,Thai Chang and Yingchao taught Chinese toNguyễn Ái Quốc, consequently, after a short time, Nguyễn could speak some simple sentences. (23). Trần Thiện and Hú jùn xióng also recited  the Hồ Chí Minh's secret visit Lushan (Jiangxi) in 1959 where he met Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai, Deng Yingchao, he spoke Chinese fluently and wrote calligraphy by hand not by brush as usual (24). This old man was not Nguyễn Ái Quốc 
Hú jízhang grow up  in Taiwan  and he could read
Analects, Mencius, Zhōng Yóng, and writing calligraphy when he was young. He graduated from  the Industrial College when he was 20 years old. He was very good at both English and Japanese. When he was 29 years old, he left Taiwan to Shànghǎi. From 1933 he continued his education for 5 years for Vietnamese and French.
 Nguyễn Ái Quốc did not have this demand but   Hú jí zhang did.  In the archive in Moscow now we can see the copies of Vietnamese and French, but not the Chinese and  calligraphy. Therefore we can conclude that from 1933 to 1938, the student in Moscow was Hú jí zhang not Nguyễn Ái Quốc.   After 1938, Nguyễn Ái Quốc reapeared in China, he could write and read Chinese fluently.  This man was  Hú jí zhang not Nguyễn Ái Quốc.
Nguyễn Ái Quốc was a deceitful man, and the International Communists the false and brutal party. They created many tricks to fraud people and covered the truth. So, in the study of biography of Nguyễn Ái Quốc, we met a lot of dificulty. Anyway, Hú jùn xióng worked  and got a lot of success. He already gave us more useful answers such as:
+ In 1933, a man from Xiamen came to Shanghai for Moscow was not Nguyễn Ái Quốc. 
+ Nguyễn Ái Quốc and Hồ Chí Minh had the different loves. 
+Hú jí zhang was the author of  Prison Diary because this work reflected the local language and history of Taiwan . Nguyễn Ái Quốc and Hồ Chí Minh were two different persons. 


1. Conclusion
Nguyễn Tất Thành was a professional thief. In France, he robbed name Nguyễn Ái Quốc of group Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Văn Trường, and their revolutionary works. In China, he also robbed name Hồ Chí Minh of Hồ Học Lãm and the League For Indepandance of Vietnam of Vietnamese nationalist revolutionists.
2. About Hồ Chí Minh's pictures
 There were many different pictures of Hồ Chí Minh. It means that there were many Hồ Chí Minh It is a method of the communists to protect their leaders and their secret policies. 
3. Communism is  a kind of imperialism. The leaders of each party are only the slaves of the Komintern. International Communist party governed all the communist parties in the world.  Komintern decided every thing. The replacement of Hú jí zhang (Hồ Tập Chương) for Nguyễn Ái Quốc was the ruse of Komintern, especially Chinese communist party in order to invade Vietnam. Mao Tsetung and the Chinese communist party had the plan to occupy Vietnam when they arranged Hú jí zhang  and Nguyn Ai Quoc working together for the establishment of the Communist Party of 1931. This plot was clear when Hú jí zhang and Nguyễn Ái Quốc had the same aliases PC. Lin and Hồ Quang.  
4. About Nguyễn Ái Quốc 's tuberculosis
 After Nguyễn was released, he had to travel a long time for USSR, so he had no time and good condition for the treatment. Moreover, about 1930, tuberculosis was incurable.It was very difficul for Nguyễn to survive with tuberculosis when he a had chronic cough with blood-tinged sputum in those circumstances.
5. About Nguyễn Ái Quốc in prison in Hongkong and in concentration camp in USSR
 Nguyễn Ái Quốc was arrested the British police. According to Hoàng Văn Chí, and Hú jùn xióng, it was heard that Nguyen agreed to work for the UK.This release certainly caused a doubt for the Komintern. In Vietnam war, many Vietnamese communists who worked secretly in the national zones and were arrested by the National government, when they came home, were investigated thoroughly and brutally  by their comrades. According to Đoàn Duy Thành's Memoir, he was imprisoned by French police in 1951 in Hải Phòng. When he escaped from the prison and came home, he was investigated by his camrades. Fortunatly, he passed the interrogation and became a Deputy Prime Minister in 1987 .But in 2003, Đỗ Mười and Tô Duy accused him of spying (25) According to " Hoàng Tùng's Memoir" a communist was investigated by his comrad who asked:" who was our leader?" he answered Trần Văn Giàu instead of Hồ Chí Minh, immediately he was burried half of his body! (26). Đinh Bá Thi, ambassador of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in the United Nations, in 1978, he returned to Vietnam and was killed due to a traffic accident! 
According to Sophie Quinn Judge, Stalin could destroy everybody, even his closest comrades, such as Kalinin, Molotov. (27). Stalin was an executioner while Hà Huy Tập gave him a sword to kill Nguyễn Ái Quốc! In such tragic situation, Nguyn Ái Quốc had no chance to survive after the Stalin's bloody purge!
6.   About Hồ Chí Minh 's face and voice
Bùi Tín wrote:In August 1945, when Hồ Chí came to Hà Nội, Ms Thanh, his sister, went to Hanoi to see him. They quickly recognized each other. Hồ Chí Minh could change his voice into  Nghệ An accent, and he asked the acquaintance and relatives. Ms Thanh looked at his two ears, nose and  chin, then said :" It is true thằng Coong when he was young!" In 1957, when Hồ came home in Nghệ An, he could go directly to his old house without reluctance. Why a Chinese in Taiwan could speak Vietnamese with Nghê An accent, could recognise his sisteur, and could know the terrain and villagers in Nghê An ! (HCM, LXXIII)

Bùi Tín was wrong because in Vietnam nobody call an old man especially the president of Vietnam by the title "thằng" . -Thằng means a boy, young man, a bad or contemptible man - In the family, people call a person by his or her age, or the birth order in the family ( anh, chị, chú, bác, cô, dì) Indeed, that task is not difficult for a spy. Ms. Ỷ Lan is an English but she speaks very well Vietnamese with the Huế accent . Many American and European singers can sing wonderfully Vietnamese songs .
 On the contrary, Hồ Chí Minh did not speak well the voice of Nghệ An. According to Phùng Cung, Hồ Chí Minh 's voice is the voice of  Xạ Phang (shèbàng), a minority in the South of China (28).
About 1930, if the aesthetic science could change the  appearance of a man, it was very easy for
Hú jí zhang  to play the role of Nguyễn Ái Quốc. If not, Komintern could chose a man similar to Nguyễn Ái Quốc. In this case, Ms Thanh and Mr. Arnoux could be mistaken.
Doctor Trần Văn Tích wrote:
 Former German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder had a cousin, her name was Renate G. living in the former East Germany and the Stasi (East German Secret Service) recruited her as an  employee. Just two years of training, she could  speak English fluently as a true  diplomat.
 Counterintelligence of North Korea had kidnapped Japanese people for to practice of their agents living in Japan.(HCM, XIX)
What Bùi Tín  saying is not true but  imaginery.Did Bùi Tín stood near Hồ Chí Minh when Ms Thanh came to Hanoi, and talked to Hồ Chí Minh ?Did Bui Tín take information from what person or journal? Accoding to Nguyễn Khắc Huyên  in his  Vision accomplished, in 1946, Hồ Chí Minh did not meet his brother, and his sister  on the pretext  of busyness and national secrecy , so his sister never met her brother when he became a President of Vietnam.(29).Hoàng Quốc Kỳ in his work entitled "Ma đầu Hồ Chí Minh"( Hồ Chí Minh, A Ghost) wrote that  when Mr. Khiêm, his brother died  (1950), Hồ did not came to see him the last time, but he hurried to visit Dr. Tôn Thất Tùng 's wife, a beautiful woman, when she was giving birth to a child. (30)
This event might correct the articles which told that Ms Thanh and Mr. Khiêm had the occasion to see President Hồ Chí Minh in Hanoi. Mr. Khiêm's death in 1950  might be a question because during 1946-1950, many Vietnamese were killed secretly by the communists;  and the Hồ 's indifference towards his sister and brother might tell us that Hồ Chí Minh did not want to see the brother and sister of Nguyễn Ái Quốc!

7.About Hồ Chí Minh's Prison Diary
 Prison Diary was an mysterious work, which contained a lot of deception.Vietnamese communist transformed it many times. Why? If Prison Diary were a real work by Nguyễn Ái Quốc, it did not need to be repaired!

In two book covers above, the years are different and the writing shapes also different. The contents of Prison Diary are changed many times.Prison Diary and Hồ Chí Minh's will had the same fate , the fate of change and deception. Howerver, Prison Diary was not belonged to Nguyễn Ái Quốc, an unfinished elementary education person. And Hú jí zhang was really a "Chinese traitor" not a "Vietnamese traitor"!

8. In previous chapter, we had criticized Trần Dân Tiên's work, a work full of lie. If Trần Dân Tiên were Nguyễn Ái Quốc, he did not work on the ship as a cook helper, and work in a restaurant as a waiter. He was only a servant doing the chores on the ship and in a restaurant. If Trần Dân Tiên were Hú jí zhang, he  was really a liar.Writing Life of Hồ Chí Minh, Trần Dân Tiên aimed to convince people to believe that Ho Chi Minh and Nguyen Ai Quoc was the same person.

9.About the last day of HChí Minh
+ Ms Quỳnh Hoa wrote an article entitled " Uncle H's love for the folksongs" : In the last day, H wanted to hear the folk songs. Ms. Ngô Thị Oanh, a nurse, sang a song of Quan H, "Ngưi ơi người đừng về" (Please stay here, don't leave us"! (HCM, XXIV)
A Chinese newspaper recounted the last day of Hồ Chí Minh in an article entitled "Former Chinese Ambassador  and Individual Secretary of Ho Chí Minh lived with H to the end of his life ". This person was Trương Đức Duy who worked beside Hồ Chí Minh  as a translator, and a cook from 1967 to the end of H's life.He followed Hồ from Vietnam to Chinese hospital in Peking. The group of Chinese physicians and nuses always stood near Hồ 's bed. Hồ asked a Chinese nurse sing a song. She sang " Praising Socialist scociety" .After hearing that song, Hô died.(HCM, XXIII )`.
 In an article entitle" Where is the truth", M Nấm
 recited her state when she  hear the song entitled " Uncle Hô sayings before he goes away" by Trần Hoàn . This song had rooted from a story:" Before Uncle Hdied, he wanted to hear a folksong, consequently, Ms. Ngô Thị Oanh sang the song
" Người ơi người đừng về" with happiness and tears!

  But later, she read an article entitled "Three times Uncle laughed before he went away" in the Journal of People Army:"I am a head nurse in an hospital in Peking, in charge of care for the health of Chou En-lai. Later I was in charge of care for Hồ CHí Minh. Unfortunately, Hồ 's health became worse. At the last time, he said he want to hear a song. Everybody pushed me so I sang a song...After hearing that song, he smiled and hold my hand  and said thank you. That was the third time  and the last he smiled.
Those news gave us a lot of useful information.
+Vietnamese communists were the liars.
+At the end of Hồ's life, he heard a Chinese song not a Vietnamese song. And at the end of his life, H Chí Minh was surrounded by a number of Chinese, especially he was served by a Chinese ambassador . That event proved that Hồ was a Chinese, so he was protected to the end of his life by the Chinese government in order to keep their secrecy and to cover their ambition to invade Vietnam. Tờng Chinh, Phạm Văn Đồng, Võ Nguyên Giáp, Tố Hữu, Trần Hoàn surely know the truth but they keep secret and they told lie to deceive Vietnamese people for good. 
10. About Hồ Chí Minh grand child
Taipei 04:52 24-01-2010: A grandchild of Hồ Chí Minh, Trần Phương, cam to Taipei to visit his family. (HCM, XXXVI ) 
With those events and  a lot of evidence, we can conclude that Hồ Chí Minh was a Chinese. It was a plot arranged by the Chinese communist party and the Komintern in order to occupy Vietnam. Its consequence was clear when Hồ Chí Minh, Phạm Văn Đồng signed the agreements selling our country to China.
The body of Hồ Chí Minh also had trouble. In the war, Vietnamese communists had to move it into the mountain. How about this body in such condition? If it was destroyed, so the body in Ba Đình was a body of another man, a Chinese or a Vietnamese?
In future, by the body examination  with DNA, the study of appearance, characters, and the memoir of the senior communists, the total truth would be revealed.


(1). Trần Dân Tiên. Những mẩu chuyện về đời hoạt động của Hồ Chủ tịch. p.55E book.
(2). Trần Quốc Vượng . "Trong Cõi".California. 1993.E book.
 (3).Phương Lan. Anh Thư Nước Việt : từ lập quó̂c đé̂n hiện đại. Khai Trí, Saigon, 1969,288p.
 Hồ Chí Minh, Kẻ Mang Tên Giả, HCM, CXXX,
(4).Nguyễn Văn Chức,ch.8. HCM,CXXXII)
(5).Trần Gia Phụng (ViệtNam Niên Biểu Nhân Vật Chí , p.168), and Chính Đạo (Hồ Chí Minh, Vo.2, Văn Hóa , Houston, 1993,p.281);HCM, LXXII.
(6). Nguyễn Tường Bách . VIỆT NAM MỘT THẾ KỶ QUA. 1998. E book.  Chap.11-17.
 (8).Hoàng Văn Hoan,  Giọt nước giữa biển cả.  Hồi ký, 1988. E book.
(9).Trần Trọng Kim. "Một Cơn Gió Bụi". Vĩnh Sơn, Sài Gòn 1969.

(10).  Tưởng Vĩnh Kính. Jiang Yongjing. Hồ Chí Minh tại Trung Quốc.(Ho Chi Minh and China.Minh Võ. Hồ Chí Minh Nhận Định Tổng Hợp, TIẾNG QUÊ HƯƠNG. Virginia. xuất bản. 2003.E book, ch.7.
(11). Sophie Quinn  Judge. "Ho Chi Minh:The Missing Years," 1919-1941. University of California Press, 2002 - 356 pages, chapter 7.
(12). HOÀNG VĂN CHÍ. " Từ Thực Dân Đến Cộng Sản" (From the Colonialism to the Communism); Chân Trời Mới, Sàigòn; 1964. .Part II, ch.3.E book.
(13).   CAO VĂN LUẬN. "Bên Giòng Lịch Sử 1945-1965 " ( On the Side of History).1971.E book.
(14). Tưởng Vĩnh Kính. Jiang Yongjing. Hồ Chí Minh tại Trung Quốc.(Ho Chi Minh and China), 1940-1945.Columbia University, 1967.E book.
 (15). William Duiker.  Hồ Chí Minh- A Life.Hyperion Books, 2001, 209-212.
Far Eastern Economic Review. November 2007. Ho Chi Minh: A Biography .by Pierre Brocheux, translated by Claire Duiker. Cambridge University Press, 265 pages, Reviewed by Jonathan Mirsky. 
(17). Sophie Quinn  Judge. "Ho Chi Minh:The Missing Years, 1919-1941. University of California Press, 2002 - 356 pages.(18).胡俊熊 Hú jùn xióng . Hô Chí Minh sanh bình khảo 胡志明生平考( ISBN: 9789866820779) .Taiwan, 2008; 324pages.
(20).胡俊熊 Hú jùn xióng, page 17.
(21). 胡俊熊 Hú jùn xióng, page 103.
(22).William Duiker.William ,p. 143,
(23). Han Suyin, 84-85.  胡俊熊 Hú jùn xióng, Part V. ch.1.
(24).Trần Thiện - Xưa & Nay, số 331, 5 – (HCM, CXL);   胡俊熊 Hú jùn xióng, Part V. ch.1
(25). Đoàn Duy Tùng. Memoir. 2007. E book.Chapter 12.
(26). Hoàng Tùng. Memoir.  E book.2003.
(27).Sophie Quinn  Judge. Chapter VI.
(28). Phùng Cung. Phùng Cung. Ván c© khai xuân. Canada, 2004. 68.
(29). Minh Võ,Hồ Chí Minh Nhận Định Tổng Hợp, TIẾNG QUÊ HƯƠNG. Virginia. xuất bản. 2003. E book, ch.12.
(30). Minh Võ,Hồ Chí Minh Nhận Định Tổng Hợp, TIẾNG QUÊ HƯƠNG. Virginia. xuất bản. 2003. E book, ch.14. 

1 comment:

Quang Nguyen said...

It's a wonderful piece of information! I did enjoy reading it! Thank you very much! QN 7/2/14.